Stainless steels are high alloy steels. They contain about 4% to 30% of chromium. They are classified into three types such as martensitic, austenitic, and ferritic steels. Another group of stainless steels are precipitation-hardened steels. They result from a combination of austenitic and martensitic steels.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy is a martensitic type stainless steel. It has high ductility and strength. It has a yield strength which is nearly 3 times the strength of grade 304 stainless steel. The following datasheet gives an overview of grade 450 stainless steel alloy.
The following table shows the chemical composition of grade 450 stainless steel alloy.
|Niobium, Nb (Columbium, Cb)||0.4|
The physical properties of grade 450 stainless steel alloy are displayed in the following table.
|Density||7.80 cm3||0.282 lb/in3|
The following table outlines the mechanical properties of grade 450 stainless steel alloy.
|Tensile strength||986 MPa||143000 psi|
|Yield strength (@ strain 0.200%)||814 MPa||118000 psi|
|Bulk modulus (typical for steel)||166 GPa||24100 ksi|
|Shear modulus (typical for steel)||83.9 GPa||12200 ksi|
|Charpy impact||125 - 141 J||92.2 - 104 ft-lb|
|Elongation at break (gage length is 4 times specimen diameter)||13.30%||13.30%|
|Hardness, Brinell (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||278||278|
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||296||296|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||28||28|
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||287||287|
The thermal properties of grade 450 stainless steel alloy are displayed in the following table.
|Thermal expansion co-efficient ( @ 20-100 C/68-212 F)||10.1 m/m C||5.61 in/in F|
|Thermal conductivity (typical value for stainless steel)||20.7 W/mK||144 BTU in/hr.ft2.F|
Other designations that are equivalent to grade 450 stainless steel alloy include:
ASTM A564 (XM-25)
ASTM A693 (XM-25)
ASTM A705 (XM-25)
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy uses feeds and speeds comparable with other martensitic stainless steels. It is preferred to use positive feeds and slow speeds to achieve good results.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy can be welded using shielded methods to reduce contamination.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy can be hot worked by soaking at 1150-1177°C (2100-2150°F) followed by cooling and fully annealing.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy can be cold worked using all common techniques.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy is annealed by soaking at 1024-1052°C (1875-7925°F) for 1 h followed by quenching in water or oil.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy is soaked at specific temperature for 4 h followed by cooling to obtain condition H900, H950, H1000, H1050 or H1150.
Grade 450 stainless steel alloy is mainly used in applications where martensitic fail in terms of corrosion resistance, and standard austenitics fail in terms of strength requirements in corrosive environments.
Source - www.azom.com