Mars Chronicles: Curiosity's Sundial Spectacle

NASA's Curiosity Mars rover, during a radio silence period, used its Hazard-Avoidance Cameras to create black-and-white videos
Curiosity Mars Rover
Curiosity Mars RoverImage Source: NASA


NASA's Curiosity Mars rover, during a radio silence period, used its Hazard-Avoidance Cameras to create black-and-white videos capturing its shadow's movement across the Martian surface. The 12-hour footage aimed to reveal weather patterns but unveiled the rover's shifting silhouette from sunrise to sunset instead.


   NASA's Curiosity Mars rover, while under a communication blackout known as Mars solar conjunction, seized the opportunity to utilize its Hazard-Avoidance Cameras (Hazcams) on Sol 4002 to track its shadow's trajectory on the Martian terrain.

Conjunction, when solar plasma disrupts Earth-Mars communication, limits direct commands to spacecraft. However, Curiosity received instructions just before this period to record two 25-frame videos, showcasing its shadow's movement during daylight hours.

Typically used for hazard detection during rover drives, the Hazcams were repurposed to capture potential weather phenomena like clouds or dust devils. Post-conjunction analysis revealed no significant weather events, but the videos showcased the rover's shadow transitioning across the surface from dawn to dusk.

The first video, sourced from the front Hazcam, highlights the rover's silhouette against Gediz Vallis on Mount Sharp, Gale Crater's site of exploration since 2014. As sunrise brightens the scene, the robotic arm's shadow shifts, revealing Curiosity's front wheels and a calibration target for an onboard instrument.

Throughout the day, the Hazcam's exposure settings adapt to changing light conditions, from short exposures during midday to longer ones by nightfall, resulting in sensor noise resembling "hot pixels."

The second video, captured by the rear Hazcam, displays Curiosity's rear shadow overlooking Mount Sharp's slopes and Gale Crater's floor. Image artifacts, including a cosmic ray hit and sensor disturbances from the rover's power system, pepper the footage.

Re-projected images corrected wide-angle lens distortions, although speckles seen, especially in the rear-camera video, originated from accumulated Martian dust on the lenses over 11 years.


Curiosity's shadow-capturing endeavor, while aimed at recording weather, unveiled a mesmerizing visual narrative of its daily journey from sunrise to sunset on the Martian landscape, offering a unique perspective on the rover's routine operations amidst Martian terrain.

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