Toyota Motor North America has embarked on a mission to create a sustainable, closed-loop battery ecosystem for its electrified powertrains. Toyota and Redwood Materials will explore a series of end-of-life battery solutions for Toyota’s proposed battery ecosystem. Initially, this collaboration will focus on the collection, testing and recycling of Toyota hybrid electric vehicle batteries. The companies will then look to expand into other areas such as battery health screening and data management, remanufacturing and battery material supply throughout North America. Redwood Materials is driving down the environmental footprint and cost of lithium-ion batteries by offering large-scale sources of domestic anode and cathode materials produced from recycled batteries. Redwood receives more than ~6 GWh of end-of-life batteries annually for recycling, which are then refined and remanufactured into critical battery materials. The company plans to ramp production of anode and cathode components in the US to 100 GWh annually by 2025, enough to produce more than one million electric vehicles a year. Toyota’s production plans include new and increased automotive battery production in the United States. Recently Toyota announced an investment of USD 1.29 billion in a new North American battery plant, Toyota Battery Manufacturing, North Carolina. When completed, TBMNC is anticipated to produce battery packs for 1.2 million electrified vehicles per year.