Over a span of 20 years, Nigeria has witnessed a significant increase in building collapse that has resulted in loss of lives and livelihoods, as well as the displacement of families. In fact, over this period, the country ranked number one in the frequency and intensity of building collapse in Africa. The collapse of a 21-story building in November 2021 in Ikoyi in Lagos, which killed at least 45 people and seriously injured 10 others, is just one example of the severity of building and structural collapse in the country. US-based Brookings Institution in a recent report said that some 6,000 households have been displaced and USD 3.2 trillion worth of property has been lost in 167 building collapses in Nigeria’s commercial capital Lagos between 2000 and 2021.Apart from generally known causes of building collapse, such as natural hazards, material fatigue, aging, terrorist attacks, and design flaws, human error in construction has become a prominent factor in this problem as well. In fact, many of the documented cases of building collapse in Nigeria include individuals’ or building developers’ errors of bypassing basic professional procedures of getting building plan approval, engaging the services of unqualified or unskilled builders, the use of defective or substandard building materials, illegal conversion of existing structures, and alterations of approved building permits. For instance, regarding the Ikoyi collapse, the general manager of Lagos State Building Control Agency stated that the owners had gotten approval for 15 floors but added six more on top of the original approval.Notably, there are neither federal nor state regulations in Nigeria that mandate that individuals or building developers consult certified professionals for building construction. Consequently, professional bodies are unable to fulfill oversight functions, paving the way for unqualified or unskilled builders to oversee construction projects in the country. In a similar vein, the failure of government at different levels to prosecute the culprits of building collapse has solidified a preponderance of substandard building materials and an increasing level of impunity among building developers.In a bid to regulate and enforce building codes in Nigeria, various state governments have agencies that supervise and monitor development activities from planning to permit approval, through construction to completion. For instance, over the years, the Lagos State government has established a Building Control Agency, Physical Planning Permit Authority, State Safety Commission, and State Material Testing Laboratory to ensure the integrity of building projects in the state. Even before the Ikoyi disaster, various policies and laws had been enacted to regulate building construction in the country, including: National Urban Development Law of 2006. This law aimed to develop a dynamic system of urban settlement, promote efficient urban and regional development, and support efficient monitoring of building development in the country. Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning (NURP) Law (decree 88 of 1992). Chapter 59 Section 74 of this law states that, in the event of the collapse of any property or structure due to negligence on the part of the owner or developer, such property shall be forfeited to the state government after due investigation and or publication in the state official gazette. In addition, the government also has powers to prosecute construction engineers and require the relevant professional bodies to have their licenses revoked if they do not follow the standard practices. 2010 urban and regional planning and development law of Lagos. Sections 27(1) and 75(2) of this law state that erection of a structure without a planning permit and breaking of government seals or removal of any mark placed on a contravening structure by or with order of the agency are punishable offenses.Despite the existence of these laws, the lack of their implementation across all three tiers of government hinders their effectiveness. This state of affairs could be attributed to little or no effective monitoring of building development by government agencies due to lack of manpower and unqualified technical officers, corruption of government officials in charge of building plan approvals, or insufficient equipment to effectively oversee and approve building construction.