Rio Tinto has started producing spodumene concentrate, a mineral used in the production of lithium for batteries, at a demonstration plant in its Rio Tinto Iron and Titanium Quebec Operations in our metallurgical complex in Sorel-Tracy in Canada. The plant will demonstrate at industrial scale a new spodumene concentration process that provides lithium oxide, Li20, grades and recoveries well above the industry average. The process was developed by researchers at Rio Tinto’s Critical Minerals and Technology Centre and tested on spodumene ore samples from various countries. It offers the environmental benefit of not using chemical products and generating only dry, inert residues.The demonstration plant was commissioned in June after successful laboratory testing of the new process and produced its first ton of spodumene concentrate in July 2022. It will test ore from various local suppliers including Sayona, an emerging lithium producer with projects in Québec and Western Australia.Rio Tinto is committed to the battery materials sector and lithium’s role in a low carbon future. The company’s portfolio of lithium projects focuses on leading edge mining and processing technology to deliver environmentally sensitive solutions to the production of battery-grade lithium carbonate for electric vehicles.