LKAB: Ephemeral Alloys: Green Steel's Delicate Equation



A Swedish pilot project by LKAB strives for CO₂-free steel production, revealing a delicate balance. Projected to complete by 2026, the endeavor demands electricity prices below €26 per MWh and carbon prices above €132 per metric ton to surpass current business viability. However, H₂GS, another Swedish green steel aspirant, criticizes the study's cost figures, foreseeing challenges in market alignment and customer willingness to pay.


In the quest for sustainable steel production, a Swedish pilot project led by LKAB unveils a delicate equation. The initiative, aiming for CO₂-free steel, hinges on specific economic conditions. According to a report by the Scandinavian Institute for Public Policy, the project requires electricity prices below €26 per MWh and carbon prices above €132 per metric ton to outshine the developer's existing business. The timeline for completion is set for 2026, with an anticipated annual power consumption of 5 TWh.€

Under the current market dynamics, challenges arise as the front-year Nordic power futures contract lingers above 41 per MWh, and Europe's benchmark carbon price remains below €66 per metric ton. These figures pose a financial conundrum for LKAB, leading the institute to suggest that the company might find greater financial viability in focusing on the production of high-quality steel pellets aligned with global demand expectations.

However, not everyone agrees with the projected cost figures. H2GS, another Swedish steel venture with green aspirations, criticizes the study's assumptions, labeling them as detached from reality. Lina Haakonsdotter, the head of sustainability at H2GS, highlights that the cost projections overlook customer willingness to pay, raising concerns about the economic feasibility of green steel production in the Nordic nation.

Both steel projects are situated in northern Sweden, historically known for low power prices. Yet, the increasing industrial electricity demand in the region forecasts a potential upswing in prices in the coming years, adding further complexity to the financial landscape.


In conclusion, the Swedish pilot project for CO₂-free steel production by LKAB faces economic intricacies, requiring a delicate balance of electricity and carbon prices. As the initiative contends with market dynamics and potential competition, the study's assumptions are met with criticism from H2GS. The feasibility of green steel production in the Nordic nation hangs in the balance, considering the evolving power landscape and the willingness of customers to embrace sustainable practices.

SteelGuru Business News