Primetals Technologies is developing a new green steel technology to replace blast furnace plants and has signed a collaboration contract with RHI Magnesita, the global leader in refractory innovations. The new solution is called the Smelter, a furnace powered by electrical energy and used for melting and final reduction of direct reduced iron. Operated together with a direct reduction plant and an LD converter, the Smelter is producing hot metal for the steelmaking plant and liquid slag that can be used in the cement industry. An important part of the Smelter, the refractory material protects the furnace shell by containing hot metal at temperatures of at least 1,500 degree Celsius. Consisting of bricks, it expands when heated and endures extremely high temperatures. The performance of the refractory material is determined by several factors, such as size, quality, mechanical furnace design, and cooling solutions. RHI Magnesita and Primetals Technologies have put their heads together and found a reliable refractory solution for the Smelter, which will ensure high productivity and a long lifetime. For steel producers, there are two main cost related benefits that comes with the Smelter. The DR – Smelter – LD converter route can be used especially for low grade iron ores, as it handles the generated slag well. Additionally, the LD converter is kept when the Smelter is implemented. Therefore, steel producers who operate integrated plants do not need to modify the rest of their production chain and do not have to renew their certifications when they invest in a Smelter. It will also be possible to keep the blast furnace running while installing the Smelter, and to then discontinue the use of the old equipment as soon as the Smelter is ready for operation. The conventional B –LD converter route results in almost two tons of CO2 per ton of liquid steel. Thanks to the new technology, CO2 emissions will be reduced by a factor of six, to 0.33 tons of CO2 per ton of liquid steel.